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The beating coronary heart of Lamborghini -EAST AUTO NEWS

The beating coronary heart of Lamborghini

– by Eastautonews.com

A historical past of the naturally aspirated V12 earlier than hybridization

Sant’Agata Bolognese, 18 January 2023 – The naturally aspirated V12 engine has been on the coronary heart of Lamborghini’s most prestigious product traces since 1963; in actual fact, thus far simply two designs have been produced for the tremendous sports activities automobiles. The primary, primarily a racing engine that was made extra “civilised” for street use, was designed by Giotto Bizzarrini. It made its debut within the first Lamborghini, the 350 GT. The second engine, designed from scratch however with the primary technical ideas unchanged, was launched within the Aventador[1] which was launched in 2011. This was a big technological step ahead for the corporate, setting new requirements when it comes to energy and reliability.

The primary engine underwent a big variety of modifications and evolutions over its lifetime with a purpose to ship elevated energy, and later to significantly scale back gas consumption and emissions. Between 1963 and 2010, the engine was utilized in completely different positions. At first it was front-mounted within the 350 GT, 400 GT and the Espada. It was developed utilizing aluminum for the cylinder heads, crankcase and pistons to deliver the load all the way down to 232 kg. The engine was then utilized in a rear mid-engine format, rotated 90 levels to a transverse orientation within the Miura. Subsequently it was rotated one other 90 levels to a longitudinal rear-mid place, beginning with the Countach, to assist stability weight distribution.

As the dimensions of the engine elevated, from 3.5 liters within the 350 GT to six.5 liters within the Murciélago, it grew to become more and more crucial to scale back the engine weight. To this finish, new supplies and new applied sciences have been launched to decrease the engine within the chassis. At the moment, the V12 is the beating coronary heart of Lamborghini’s Aventador, Sián, and Countach LPI 800-4, in addition to the Essenza SCV12, the track-day automobile during which it produces 830 hp.

The beginning of a spectacular heritage

Since its inception, the V12 engine has been thought-about probably the most refined and prestigious of powerplants, much more so since they have been mounted in Lamborghinis. Bizzarrini created a V12 that was meant to present the corporate an opportunity to enter the world of racing. As an alternative, Ferruccio Lamborghini elected to show it right into a manufacturing engine for his new mannequin, and so started the love affair that continues to today.

“The Lamborghini story was born with the V12,” mentioned Maurizio Reggiani, former Chief Technical Officer at Lamborghini. “It’s clear that within the Sixties, the V12 represented the top of expertise, luxurious and sportiness of each automobile.”

After the 350 GT and its derivatives, the V12 was mounted into the Miura in 1966, the Countach in 1971, and the Diablo in 1990 earlier than discovering its last house within the Murciélago. The flexibility of the engine was confirmed when engineers fitted a 5.2 liter model of the engine to the LM 002, Lamborghini’s first Tremendous SUV, in 1986. A particular one-of-a-kind model of the LM 002 was additionally made, that includes a 7.2-litre 700 hp V12 normally used on offshore racing powerboats.

A radical change of pondering

Because of the double overhead camshaft resolution for every cylinder financial institution, a primary for engines designed for manufacturing automobiles, the ‘V’ angle of the engine might be elevated, which meant that the middle of gravity might be lowered. For the Miura, the transverse rear mid-engine format was chosen to attain higher weight distribution and to shorten the automobile’s wheelbase. The gearbox and differential casing have been built-in into the powertrain, serving to to make the general meeting of this legendary tremendous sports activities automobile extra compact.

Weight distribution is vital

With a view to additional enhancing weight distribution for the Countach, the design workforce used the identical engine however relocated it to mid-rear place and rotated it a further 90 levels, mainly 180 levels in comparison with the primary 350 GT. They mounted the gearbox in entrance of the engine, virtually “within the cockpit”. In its last iteration, the Countach’s engine capability had elevated to five.2 liters. With the mannequin yr 1986, the V12 mounted within the Countach was additionally homologated within the U.S. market. This milestone was achieved utilizing digital gas injection, which changed carburetors in markets the place anti-pollution rules have been extra stringent.

“With the elevated capability, the engine grew to become longer, and that meant having to maneuver the middle of gravity towards the rear of the automobile,” mentioned Reggiani. “This made it harder to drive, and also you had extra oversteering impact. The format was revolutionized, utilizing the engine to maneuver the middle of gravity. The Countach engine is absolutely the primary in a era of engines which are nonetheless right here in the present day when it comes to powertrain format and place within the automobile.”

Assembly the calls for of four-wheel-drive

Work began in 1985 on the event of the V12 in preparation for its use on the brand new tremendous sports activities automobile, Diablo, which might debut in 1990 with the engine capability elevated to five.7 liters and energy supply of 492 hp at 6800 rpm. In its VT model offered in 1993, the Diablo was the primary Lamborghini tremendous sports activities automobile to even be obtainable in a four-wheel drive model. The Diablo SV-R, alternatively, was created to race within the Tremendous Sport Trophy, which debuted as a assist race on the 1996 24 Hours of Le Mans. Thirty-two Diablo SV-Rs took half in what was Lamborghini’s largest ever racing program previous to the Tremendous Trofeo championship inaugurated in 2009.

The 1998 Diablo GT, primarily the primary Diablo mannequin to characteristic the styling parts of the second era that will debut in 1999, introduced additional main technical upgrades to the engine. Of specific word was the adoption of a person throttle physique for every cylinder, a selection dictated by the need to enhance the engine’s throttle response. This variation was vital in addition to futuristic, contemplating that related expertise is built-in into the brand new Huracán GT3 that will probably be racing in 2023.

New challenges with the appearance of Murciélago

With Audi’s acquisition of a majority stake in Lamborghini, a interval of sweeping change started. The brand new house owners have been conscious of Lamborghini’s want to take care of its id and exclusivity. “We have been capable of create a relationship between Audi and Lamborghini that set limits but additionally revered wants,” mentioned Reggiani. “Proper from the beginning, Audi understood what it might ask of Lamborghini and what it couldn’t, making a stability that allowed each firms to enhance by selling their variations. The specificity of Lamborghini, perceived by each the shareholders and the opposite manufacturers within the group, has been one of many keys to our success. What we have been capable of show with the event of the V12 gave us the boldness that enabled us to fine-tune the V10 that debuted on the Gallardo and to develop all our different merchandise in a distinctly Lamborghini approach.”

Underneath the brand new possession, a distinct method was taken to the evolution of the V12. From attaining excessive energy output, the main focus started to shift towards volumetric effectivity to satisfy the more and more stringent rules. One instance is that of the Murciélago, which was unveiled in 2001 with a 6.2-liter V12 engine that produced 580 hp. It was up to date in 2007 with capability elevated to six.5 liters and was able to producing a powerful 670 hp. Furthermore, the automobile was 100 kg lighter and the engine, upgraded in a number of areas, was fitted with dry-sump lubrication with oil recirculation utilizing scavenge pumps. This allowed Lamborghini to scale back the space between the crankshaft and the underside of the automobile, which led to improved dealing with.

The event of the V12 engine for the Murciélago allowed Lamborghini to search out its personal place throughout the realm of Audi, but it surely was the choice to design a brand new V12 from scratch, after 45 years, that allowed Lamborghini’s designers to set new objectives and benefit from new alternatives.

Clear-sheet design for Aventador

“While you design an engine from scratch, what you need to think about from the outset are the boundary circumstances that you’ve to have the ability to maintain in each area of use and from each viewpoint,” mentioned Reggiani. “For Lamborghini, the Aventador was like a gown rehearsal to show that we might obtain energy, weight, and efficiency, but additionally the reliability that was required of us by the Group. The outcomes communicate for themselves. We bought roughly double the variety of automobiles that have been estimated initially, and this can be a good indicator of the success the Aventador has loved. Regardless of the modifications and enhancements made through the years, from the engineering viewpoint the engine is precisely the identical.

“After we began engaged on the Murciélago, we had 6.2-liter engines and a mean of 620-640 hp. With the Aventador, we began with 6.5 liters and 700 hp, understanding that, over the anticipated lifetime of the mannequin, the ability must improve by at the least 10 p.c, so it was a giant problem. We additionally needed to consider the Euro 5 emission requirements and the truth that, for this primary venture of a brand new Lamborghini engine below the Audi umbrella, we needed to meet all the necessities mandated by the Group.”

The Aventador engine was unveiled in 2011, producing 690 hp at 8250 rpm with 6.5-liter displacement. It was then modified for the LP 700-4 in 2013, the LP 750-4 in 2015, and the Superveloce in 2016. With the arrival of the SVJ in 2019, the engine output was elevated to 759 hp, and within the 2021 Ultimae, the final of the road-going Aventadors, to 780 hp. The identical engine can be fitted on the Essenza, a track-only automobile that’s not topic to the constraints of street use homologation. On this configuration, the engine reaches 830 hp, a real marvel of recent engineering. “The very best expression of our V12 was reached with the Essenza V12, the place the identical engine is ready to produce 830 hp,” mentioned Reggiani. “The engine is similar, however the exhaust backpressure is decrease since you don’t have the filters and the acoustic insulation parts, and the consumption filter has much less strain drop, so you may have extra volumetric effectivity. From a development standpoint, the success of this V12 is proof {that a} good engine from the start is ready to present one thing distinctive when it comes to emotion and energy, a possible that’s evident when it comes to thermodynamics and mechanical elements.”

The Aventador was the final Lamborghini to run a pure naturally aspirated V12 engine earlier than the subsequent hybrid chapter is rolled out within the first quarter of 2023.

[1] Gasoline consumption and emission values of all Aventador fashions; Gasoline consumption mixed: 18.0-18,0 l/100km (WLTP); CO2-emissions mixed: 448-442 g/km (WLTP)

The beating coronary heart of Lamborghini -EAST AUTO NEWS
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